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While it might seem that the decision to prompt or not might only arise in certain situations, this issue is becoming even more relevant with the growth in the number of brands in most categories. This means that the list of possible competitors is often longer than can practically be provided to survey respondents. A movement to a methodology where brands are not prompted becomes more attractive as it removes the requirement to decide which brands to include in brand lists. This makes the difference between the consumer associations elicited in brand prompted and unprompted methodologies of interest to marketers in most categories.

The aim of this research is therefore to compare the nature of brand associations elicited unprompted with those elicited when consumers are prompted for brands. The objective is to determine if there are meaningful differences that would lead one method to be preferable over the other under any specific conditions.

There have not been any studies that have specifically examined this issue from the perspective of brand associations. This is most likely because most of the academic research into brand associations has focussed on measurement using rating scales. In the advertising and brand awareness literature, however, there has been considerable debate on the difference between prompted and unprompted approaches. These areas of research can be considered similar in that they involve retrieval of the brand name, but in response to category or brand cues rather than an image attribute. In the advertising awareness area, there has been considerable debate about unprompted (recall) and prompted (recognition) measures, examining both the differences and the conditions under which one is preferable over the other.7, 8, 9 and 10 Overall, there has been no general consensus except for broad agreement that response levels for prompted measures are higher and more stable over time.11

In the brand awareness literature, there has been a similar, albeit more muted debate. Again there is agreement that prompted measures produce more responses than unprompted measures. Laurent et al.12 compared three commonly used brand awareness measures (top-of-mind or first brand recalled, unprompted recall and prompted recognition that the brand is a member of the category). The measures were found to follow a similar underlying structure, with the difference in response levels able to be explained by a constant that represented the degree of difficulty of the measure, with unprompted measures considered more difficult than prompted measures. Further research by Romaniuk et al.,13 however, found that the relationship found by Laurent et al. was simply a reflection of market share. A large share brand will always gain more responses than a small share brand for brand awareness measure. Also any brand will gain a higher number of responses under a prompted methodology than an unprompted methodology. These two patterns combine to make the relationship observed by Laurent et al. and Romaniuk et al. When examining brands over time, however, the similarity between the measures becomes less clear, with larger share brands varying over time more on more difficult measures while small share brands varied more over time on easier measures. This means that the two types of measures might not be interchangeable.

While some similarities can be drawn between Brand/Advertising awareness measures and brand association measures, there is one important difference that may mean the findings from awareness research might not extend to this similar context. Brand and advertising awareness measures typically involve only one instance of brand retrieval with the product category/brand as the retrieval cue. In contrast, brand associations are measured via a battery of attributes, where over 20 different ones are not unusual. A key difference between prompted and unprompted methodologies is the requirement, when brands are not prompted, for the consumer to recall brand names from long-term memory. The act of recall moves a brand from long-term memory into working memory for further cognitive processing. Working memory has well-established limitations in capacity, which restricts the number of items that can be held.18 Further the presence of brands in working memory can inhibit the retrieval of other brands even when the consumer is actively trying to recall as many as possible.1920 Therefore, measuring brand associations unprompted might reduce the number of brands that are retrieved as the respondent goes through the list. This may lead to an under-representation of brand associations in unprompted methodologies as working memory fills up with options and the ease of retrieval of additional items declines. If it is due to the filling up of working memory inhibiting other brands from being retrieved, the effect should be greater in the later attributes than in earlier attributes (eg, the last ten in a battery of 20).

If unprompted and prompted methodologies are drawing on the same construct, then the brand response levels for an attribute when prompted for brands should be able to be estimated from the unprompted response levels for the same brand on the same attributes (and vice versa).

If the consumer choice situation is important determinant in deciding whether to measure brand associations via an unprompted or prompted methodology, then the relationships will differ for categories that represent either memory or stimulus dominant buying situations.

As expected, based on prior research, the prompted scenarios did also elicit more brands overall (see Table 1), with the prompted scenarios eliciting 2.0 and 1.3 responses on average, compared to 1.3 and 0.9 in the equivalent unprompted scenarios. There were some specific attributes where there were no differences. These were all attributes with a lower mean number of brands (1.2 brands or below), however, this was not a characteristic of all low mean attributes. In Insurance the attributes were cover all needs, has a range of policies, has an efficient telephone enquiry system, help in an emergency and fast service. In toothpaste for sensitive teeth was the only attribute where there was no difference. This might suggest that for these attributes, there were so few brands linked to the attribute that there was no retrieval threshold to reach and so all brands could be retrieved in each methodology.

The first analysis was to compare the brand responses gained for each attribute from the prompted versus the unprompted scenario. This was analysed for each attribute individually, using single linear regression (prompted responses as the independent variable). Results shown in Table 2 show that the responses are equivalent with Beta's generally close to 1 and adjusted R-squareds averaging 0.90 for toothpaste; and Adjusted R-squareds averaging 0.67 for Insurance. The size of the constant is directly correlated with the response level for that attribute (0.96, p

To test for potential priming/inhibition effects, respondents in both methods were presented attributes in the same order. This allows the ability to compare responses for earlier attributes with that for later attributes. The analysis compared the number of brands mentioned for each attribute to determine if the gap between prompted and unprompted methods is higher for latter attributes. The attributes were split into four groups of four, based on order of presentation. The percentage difference was calculated by dividing the difference between prompted and unprompted methods by the number of brands elicited prompted. The results (shown in Table 3) suggest different patterns for each market. In Insurance, the average difference between prompted and unprompted declined steadily for the later attributes (48 per cent for the first 4 compared to 10 per cent for the last 4). For Toothpaste, however, the difference rose for later attributes (21 per cent for the first 4 to 37 per cent for the last 4). This suggests that for Insurance, when unprompted the subsequent attributes access accumulates brands into working memory to make more brands accessible for later attributes. This suggests that with an unprompted methodology it is not that later attributes are inhibited, but that the harder initial retrieval means that fewer brands are accessed for early attributes. 041b061a72


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